Defining Risk

Most researchers, psychologists, educators, etc, will assert that young people with multiple 'risk-factors' (e.g., living in single parent home, low SES, etc.), are disproportionately 'at-risk' of dropping out of school, or violent behavior.... which is true. However, in-between the individual's risk-factors and their respective outcomes are multiple mechanisms, or the personal and environmental variables, which these less than favorable outcomes are likely attributable to. In other words, not every child from a low SES, single parent home drops-out of school. What then are the various mechanisms underlying the experience of those who do, and, maybe more importantly,  those who do not.  For the training program offered by Worth, the significance of accurately identifying these various mechanisms cannot be overstated. This research is a seminal aspect of the initiative's development.

The studies below explore this a bit more thoroughly; discussed are potential mechanisms, various risk factors, and predictors of, future antisocial behavior and/or poor life outcomes.

Criminal Trajectories

Research featured in this section explores the criminal trajectories of at-risk youth and young offenders by identifying various mechanisms underlying demonstrated outcomes. For a copy of any of the following reports, please contact

  • Staying in School Protects Boys with Poor Self-Regulation in Childhood from Later Crime: A Longitudinal Study
  • The Effects of Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit in Middle Childhood on Offending and Scholastic Ability at Age 13
  • Predictors of Offense Severity, Prosecution, Incarceration and Repeat Violations for Adolescent Male and Female Offenders
  • Nature-Nurture Integration: The Example of Antisocial Behavior
  • Multifaceted Reality of Juvenile Delinquency: An Empirical Analysis of Structural Theories and Literature
  • Community Reintegration Outcomes for Formerly Incarcerated Adolescent Fathers and Non-Fathers
  • Severe Parental Punishment and Delinquency: A Developmental Theory
  • Persistent Criminality and Career Length
  • Young Offenders and Recidivism
  • The Moral Judgment of Juvenile Delinquents: A Meta-Analysis
  • Factors Which Predict the Persistence of Aggressive Conduct Disorder
  • An Assessment of Criminal Thinking Among Incarcerated Youths in Three States
  • Self-Reported Delinquency and Reputational Orientations of High School and Incarcerated Adolescent Loners and Non-Loners
  • Attachment Relationships Among Children With Aggressive Behavior Problems: The Role of Disorganized Early Attachment Patterns

Educational Trajectories

For a copy of any of the following reports, please contact

  • Academic Underachievement and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders
  • The Phenomenon of Resistance in Learning
  • Staying in School Protects Boys with Poor Self-regulation in Childhood from Later Crime: A Longitudinal Study
  • What's Happening to the Boys? Early High School Experiences and School Outcomes Among African American Male Adolescents in Chicago
  • Cultural Mistrust, Academic Outcome Expectations, and Outcome Values Among African-American Adolescent Men
  • Teacher Preference, Peer Rejection, and Student Aggression: A Prospective Study of Transactional Influence and Independent Contributions to Emotional Adjustment and Grades
  • Personality Development at School: Assessing a Reciprocal Influence Model of Teachers’ Evaluations and Students’ Personality
  • Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care
  • Reducing the Drop-Out Rates of At-Risk High School Students: The Effective Learning Program (ELP)

Direct and Indirect Cost of Business as Usual

For a copy of any of the following reports, please contact

  • Collateral Costs: Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility
  • WSIPP’S Benefit-Cost Tool for States: Examining Policy Options in Sentencing and Corrections
  • Return on Investment: Evidence-Based Options to Improve Statewide Outcomes
  • Evidence-Based Juvenile Offender Programs: Program Description, Quality Assurance, and Cost
  • Multisystemic Therapy Fact Sheet

The Impact of Mentorship

For a copy of any of the following reports, please contact

  • The Effects of a Mentoring Program on At-Risk Youth 
    • Article Summary
  • Mentoring At-Risk High School Students: Evaluation of a School-Based Program
    •  Article Summary
  • Mentoring Programs: Promise and Paradox
    •  Article Summary
  • Mentoring High-Risk Minority Youth: Evaluation of the Brothers Project
    •  Article Summary
  • Daring to DREAM: Results from a Mentoring Program for At-Risk Youth
    • Article Summary